Botulinum toxin is used to treat certain eye disorders such as crossed eyes (strabismus) and uncontrolled blinking (blepharospasm), to treat muscle stiffness/spasms or movement disorders (such as cervical dystonia, torticollis), and to reduce the cosmetic appearance of wrinkles. It is also used to prevent headaches in people with very frequent migraines. Botulinum toxin relaxes muscle by blocking the release of a chemical called acetylcholine.
Forehead – The horizontal lines and furrows on your forehead will not magically disappear. Which is why you should consider getting a Botox injection before they start to set in permanently. These lines will become more excessive with age, and will age to your appearance.Over time by repeatedly injecting these lines the deeply etched lines will become progressively improved
Botox only lasts three to six months—and yet what's less commonly discussed is this: Facial muscles naturally weaken over time and going overboard in a certain area could have unwanted consequences. "If you do too much Botox on your forehead for many, many years, the muscles will get weaker and flatter," cautions Wexler, adding that the skin can also appear thinner and looser. Moreover, as your muscles become weaker, they can start to recruit surrounding muscles when you make facial expressions. "If one stops using their forehead muscles, they may start squinting using their nose and have wrinkles along the side of their nose," she explains. Translation: You need even more Botox for the newly recruited muscles, says Wexler. To avoid these kind of missteps, researching a doctor diligently is essential, as is approaching injectables conservatively, and asking questions about how the treatment will be tailored to your needs.
It is not known whether BOTOX® is safe or effective to treat increased stiffness in upper limb muscles other than those in the elbow, wrist, fingers, and thumb, or in lower limb muscles other than those in the ankle and toes. BOTOX® has not been shown to help people perform task-specific functions with upper limbs or increase movement in joints that are permanently fixed in position by stiff muscles. BOTOX® is not meant to replace existing physical therapy or other rehabilitation that may have been prescribed.
BOTOX® is the brand name of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In large amounts, this toxin can cause a form of muscle paralysis known as botulism, which is usually associated with food poisoning. Even though one of the most serious complications of botulism is paralysis, scientists have discovered a way to use it to human advantage. Small, diluted (weakened) amounts can be directly injected into specific muscles, causing controlled relaxation of the muscles.
The Company is developing a number of products, some of which utilize drug delivery systems, through a combination of internal and collaborative programs, such as Esmya, Sarecycline, Ubrogepant, Abicipar, Bimatoprost SR, Relamorelin, Rapastinel, Cenicriviroc and Atogepant. The Company's portfolio of branded pharmaceutical products within the US Specialized Therapeutics, US General Medicine and International segments includes Alphagan/Combigan, which is used for the treatment of selective alpha2 agonist; Armour Thyroid, which is used for the treatment of Underactive thyroid; Asacol/Delzicol, which is used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis; Botox, which is used for the treatment of acetylcholine release inhibitor; Bystolic, which is used for the treatment of hypertension; Carafate/Sulcrate, which is used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, and Dalvance, which is used for the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections. It also offers Estrace Cream, which is used for the treatment of hormone therapy; Linzess/Constella, which is used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome; Lo Loestrin which is an oral contraceptive; Lumigan/Ganfort, which is used for the treatment of prostaglandin analogue; Minastrin 24, which is an oral contraceptive; Namenda IR, Namenda XR and Namzaric, which are used for the treatment of Dementia; Restasis, which is used for the treatment of topical immunomodulator; Saphris, which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania; Teflaro, which is used for the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia; Viberzi, which is used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome; Viibryd/Fetzima, which is used for the treatment of depressive disorders, and Zenpep, which is used for the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The Company also offers CoolSculpting, which is a controlled-cooling fat reducing system.
BOTOX, highly diluted botulinium toxin, works to prevent migraine by blocking the release of a chemical in muscle cells that transmits the signal to contract to muscle fibers. Research into using BOTOX to treat migraines began after patients receiving it for other conditions reported improvement in their migraine symptoms. In 2010, after years of research and collecting clinical data, the FDA approved BOTOX for treating chronic migraines.
The toxin itself is released from the bacterium as a single chain, then becomes activated when cleaved by its own proteases. The active form consists of a two-chain protein composed of a 100-kDa heavy chain polypeptide joined via disulfide bond to a 50-kDa light chain polypeptide. The heavy chain contains domains with several functions: it has the domain responsible for binding specifically to presynaptic nerve terminals, as well as the domain responsible for mediating translocation of the light chain into the cell cytoplasm as the vacuole acidifies. The light chain is a zinc metalloprotease and is the active part of the toxin. It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family which is responsible for fusion. The cleaved SNAP-25 is unable to mediate fusion of vesicles with the host cell membrane, thus preventing the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings. This blockage is slowly reversed as the toxin loses activity and the SNARE proteins are slowly regenerated by the affected cell.
There has not been a confirmed serious case of spread of toxin effect away from the injection site when BOTOX® has been used at the recommended dose to treat chronic migraine, severe underarm sweating, blepharospasm, strabismus, or when BOTOX® Cosmetic has been used at the recommended dose to treat frown lines, crow’s feet lines, and/or forehead lines.