The recommended dilution is 200 Units/4 mL or 100 Units/2 mL with preservative -free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (see Table 1). The lowest recommended starting dose should be used, and no more than 50 Units p er site should generally be administered. An appropriately sized needle (e.g., 25-30 gauge) may be used for superficial muscles, and a longer 22 gauge needle may be used for deeper musculature. Localization of the involved muscles with techniques such as needle electromyographic guidance or nerve stimulation is recommended.
In the first study, researchers examined a sample of healthy subjects and patients with a diagnosis of migraine -any frequency-, and analysed the presence of trigger points and their location, many of the explorations resulting in a migraine crisis. The most interesting findings of this study were: 95% of migraine sufferers have trigger points, while only 25% of healty subjects have them. The most common locations of trigger points are the anterior temporal and the suboccipital region, both billateral, of the head. Furthermore, researchers found a positive correlation among the number of trigger points in a patient, the number of monthly crises and the duration in years of the condition.

I’ve had migraines since I was 12, but in 2015 my attacks got much worse. Without migraine-specific painkillers, my migraines make me queasy and tired, forcing me to go to bed with a freezing wet towel on my head. For the last two years, I’ve tried different medications, switched birth control pills, made lifestyle changes (less stress, more swimming, no alcohol) — to little avail. My migraines would improve for a while, but then they came back, worse than ever. Then this year, I finally discovered a treatment that works — Botox.
It's a remarkable arc for a drug that only a few years ago was associated with Hollywood cocktail parties where guests came for Bellinis and left with a forehead full of Botox injections. It highlights the advances that can occur when physicians, seeking new therapies for their patients, explore creative new uses for approved drugs--basically, real-world experiments that take place largely beyond the reach of federal regulators. That, in turn, raises questions about the risks of deploying medicines in ways that have not been fully vetted. But it happens all the time.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled patients who had extended histories of receiving and tolerating BOTOX injections, with prior individualized adjustment of dose. The mean BOTOX dose administered to patients in this study was 236 Units (25th to 75th percentile range of 198 Units to 300 Units). The BOTOX dose was divided among the affected muscles [see Clinical Studies].
When receiving Botox, it’s critical to know what you’re getting and to be sure that you get what you pay for. Usually, the cost of Botox is calculated on a per unit basis. This is the preferred option of many patients and surgeons as you only pay for the units of Botox used to treat any given area. This means that if you only require ten units to correct your forehead wrinkles, you simply pay for ten units at the specified price and that’s it.
Ophthalmologists specializing in eye muscle disorders (strabismus) had developed the method of EMG-guided injection (using the electromyogram, the electrical signal from an activated muscle, to guide injection) of local anesthetics as a diagnostic technique for evaluating an individual muscle’s contribution to an eye movement.[44] Because strabismus surgery frequently needed repeating, a search was undertaken for non-surgical, injection treatments using various anesthetics, alcohols, enzymes, enzyme blockers, and snake neurotoxins. Finally, inspired by Daniel Drachman’s work with chicks at Johns Hopkins,[45] Alan B Scott and colleagues injected botulinum toxin into monkey extraocular muscles.[46] The result was remarkable: a few picograms induced paralysis that was confined to the target muscle, long in duration, and without side-effects.
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The FDA approval was based on a large study showing that Botox significantly reduced migraine frequency and severity, as well as headache-related disability, compared to placebo. As just one measure of its effectiveness, many of my patients report that they’ve cut their use of rescue medications in half since starting Botox – a significant benefit for people who previously had to resort to rescue medications 15 or more times every month.
Results will be evident within three to 10 days. Photographs may be taken before the procedure so that patients can check their results themselves rather than relying on their memory. It is surprising to see how many people do not recall how they looked before the procedure and are amazed at the difference when shown a picture. Prior to having the procedure done, the patient should realize that Botox does not actually erase lines but relaxes them. What this means is that deeper lines will become somewhat less deep and superficial lines will nearly disappear. This can be likened to the act of steaming a garment's wrinkles rather than ironing them.
The initial listed doses of the reconstituted BOTOX [see Preparation And Dilution Technique] typically create paralysis of the injected muscles beginning one to two days after injection and increasing in intensity during the first week. The paralysis lasts for 2-6 weeks and gradually resolves over a similar time period. Overcorrections lasting over six months have been rare. About one half of patients will require subsequent doses because of inadequate paralytic response of the muscle to the initial dose, or because of mechanical factors such as large deviations or restrictions, or because of the lack of binocular motor fusion to stabilize the alignment .
Botox for migraines has been something that has flown under the radar, as many people know Botox as a procedure simply aimed at hiding fine lines. We turned to Matthew S. Robbins, MD, director of inpatient services at Montefiore Headache Center and the chief of neurology at the Jack D. Weiler Hospital, Montefiore, to break down the procedure for us. Scroll down to see what he has to say.
There’s a wide variety of factors that influence the total cost: the number of units required to effectively limit facial movement in the forehead, the areas in the upper face you wish to treat, the experience level of your injector, and finally, the location of the clinic where you undergo the procedure. Botox is usually charged per unit, with a unit priced from $10 to $20. The final price can also be determined per area treated, with the forehead and frown lines charged as two seperate areas.
On April 6, 2016, the company announced it would partner with Heptares Therapeutics in a deal valued up to $3.3 billion to collaborate on the development of a subtype-selective muscarinic agonists for Alzheimer's disease and other major neurological disorders.[21] On April 21, the company announced the acquisition of Topokine Therapeutics for at least $85 million, gaining the phase IIb/III compound XAF5 - a treatment for dermatochalasis.[22] On August 2, the company sold its generic drugs business to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries for $33.4 billion and 100.3 million shares of Teva.[23] On August 11, the company announced the acquisition of ForSight VISION5 for more than $95 million.[24] On September 6, the company acquired RetroSense Therapeutics for more than $60 million, gaining the positive photosensitivity gene therapy treatment, RST-001. RST-001 is to be used in retinas in which rod and cone photoreceptors have degenerated over time, causing in increase in the sensitivity of light hitting the retina.[25] On September 20, the company announced the acquisition of Tobira Therapeutics for $1.695 billion[26] and, a day later, the acquisition of Akarna Therapeutics for $50 million.[27] On October 3, the company sold Anda, its generic drug distribution business, to Teva for $500 million.[28] On October 25, the company acquired Vitae Pharmaceuticals, focused on dermatology treatments, for $639 million.[29] On October 27, the company announced it would acquire Motus Therapeutics, a developer of treatments for gastrointestinal disorders, for $200 million.[30] On November 22, 2016, the company acquired Chase Pharmaceuticals for an upfront payment of $125 million.[31]
There are no data on the presence of BOTOX in human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for BOTOX and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from BOTOX or from the underlying maternal conditions.
Significant improvements compared to placebo in the primary efficacy variable of change from baseline in daily frequency of incontinence episodes were observed for BOTOX® (100 Units) at the primary efficacy time point at week 6. Increases in maximum cystometric capacity and reductions in maximum detrusor pressure during the first involuntary detrusor contraction were also observed. These primary and secondary endpoints are shown in Table 23.
The primary release procedure for BOTOX uses a cell-based potency assay to determine the potency relative to a reference standard. The assay is specific to Allergan's products BOTOX and BOTOX Cosmetic. One Unit of BOTOX corresponds to the calculated median intraperitoneal lethal dose (LD50) in mice. Due to specific details of this assay such as the vehicle, dilution scheme, and laboratory protocols, Units of biological activity of BOTOX cannot be compared to nor converted into Units of any other botulinum toxin or any toxin assessed with any other specific assay method. The specific activity of BOTOX is approximately 20 Units/nanogram of neurotoxin protein complex.

This imbalance can affect a joint in varied ways such as at the ankle with foot position (always points toes or up on toes when walking) or at the wrist with hand position (hand in flexion with problems grasping). After a contracture occurs (not able to bring the joint through its full range of motion, even with forceful / prolonged stretching) it can be hard to re-establish full range of motion at that joint without surgery.


Recently, there have been concerns about retrograde botulinum toxin transmission, meaning that the toxin could travel back to the central nervous system, causing long-term damage. Studies done in Italy by Flavia Antonucci have been mainly on a raw form of the toxin and not any of the commercially available preparations. Additionally, these studies have been performed on animals and with the injection of the toxin to one area and in a concentration of nearly 150 times greater than normal injections for cosmetic indications, which are spread over multiple sites.
Now, thanks in large part to off-label use, Botox--the wrinkle smoother that exploded as a cultural phenomenon and medical triumph--is increasingly being drafted for problems that go far beyond the cosmetic. The depression suffered by Rosenthal's patient is just one example on a list that includes everything from excessive sweating and neck spasms to leaky bladders, premature ejaculation, migraines, cold hands and even the dangerous cardiac condition of atrial fibrillation after heart surgery, among others. The range of conditions for which doctors are now using Botox is dizzying, reflecting the drug's unique characteristics as much as the drug industry's unique strategies for creating a blockbuster.

Patients with diabetes mellitus treated with BOTOX® were more likely to develop urinary retention than nondiabetics. In clinical trials, 12.3% of patients (10/81) with diabetes developed urinary retention following treatment with BOTOX® 100 Units vs 0% of patients (0/69) treated with placebo. In patients without diabetes, 6.3% of patients (33/526) developed urinary retention following treatment with BOTOX® 100 Units vs 0.6% of patients (3/516) treated with placebo.


Botulinum toxin is one of the most poisonous substances known to man. Scientists have estimated that a single gram could kill as many as 1 million people and a couple of kilograms could kill every human on earth. In high concentrations, botulinum toxin can result in botulism, a severe, life-threatening illness. Botulism, left untreated, may result in respiratory failure and death. Despite botulinum toxin being so toxic, Botox is in huge demand.
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